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Margaret Holben Ellis's research on "porous pens" pointed out a
nomenclature problem with the term "permanent pen". "Permanent" has not
been defined for the Writing Instrument Manufacturing Association (WIMA)
and can thusly refer to many things such as ability to withstand
smudging, or resistance to running in water. It does not necessarily
indicate that a pen ink will be resistant to fading, or haloing, or
becoming acidic, etc. YIKES!
SO don't be mislead by the names of products. Many things are being
labeled in the USA with content. FOr black pens, look for "Carbon"
content which would indicate the mark will stay black. Also, there are
also actinic inks and the Pigma pens which show promise for long term use.
The MSDS sheet for ACINTIC ink states that it is Manganese dioxide (35%)
in a resin compound (36%) and water (29%). I have heard that Pigma pens
are carbon black, but what else I do not know.