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Szczepanowksa article



The 1989 AATA  lists:
26-509. SZCZEPANOWKSA, HANNA and LOVETT. CHARLES M., JR. Fungal stains on
paper: their removal and prevention.
In Book .The Conservation of Fear Eastern art: preprints of the
contributions to the Kyoto Congress, 19-23 September 1988, Mills, John S.,
Smith, Perry, and Yamasaki, Kasuo, ed.; The International Institute for
Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, London, 1988,pp.13-14, [Eng.
w. Eng. + Jap. summaries]. 5 refs.
The four fungal strains most frequently on artworks and which are
responsible for staining of paper are Alternaria solani (black stains),
Penicillium notatum(green stains), Fusarium oxysporum (purple-pink stains)
and Chaetomium globosum (grayish-brown stains). C. globosum occurs when
fungi are grown at 25 degrees C and expose to fluorescent light for eight
hours per day. By contrast, C.  globosum grows faster at 37degress C, a
temperature which inhibits growth of the other fungi. Short term exposure
of stained paper to a variety of solvents had no detectable effect on the
discolourations; however, exposure for 24 hours with 1, 4-dioxane,
N,N-diemethylformamide and pyridine removed fungal stains from paper as
follows: 1,4-dioxane completely removed the stain produced by F. oxysporum
and significantly reduced stains produced by P . notatumand C .globosum.N,
N-diemethylformamide significantly reduced the stains produced P.  notatum
and C. globosumand slightly reduced the stain produced by  F. oxysporum.
Treatment  with pyridine partially removed the stains produced by C.
globosumand F. oxysporum. Long term exposure to these solvents had no
detectable effect on the surface characteristics of the paper. Laser
irradiation at 532nm removed the stain produced by A.solani and the dark
green surface residue from P. notatum but did not affect the other stains.


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