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bookwheel references



------ =_NextPart_000_01BE3D3C.9E21CD20
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Thank you to everyone who came to my aid in my search for information =
about the bookwheel. Here is an attachment of some annotated references =
which may be of interest to some.The attachment is saved in 2 formats: =
Microsoft word document and text only=20

Happy wheel turning

          =20

******************
Judy Klaus J
25a Talavera Terrace
Kelburn
Wellington=20
NEW ZEALAND
Ph/Fax (04) 473 2252
E-mail Judy.Klaus@vuw.ac.nz

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Content-Type: application/msword; name="Annotated bibliography bookwheel.doc"
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Content-Type: text/plain; name="Annotated bibliography bookwheel.txt"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

The Medieval Book-wheel:
An annotated bibliography

By Judy Klaus


Printed sources

Beckwith, John. Early Medieval Art. New York: Praeger, 1964.

On page 130 of Beckwith's book, fig. 110, is a picture of a revolving =
lectern, one of the oldest ones noted by Bert Hall, outside of China. =
This particular lectern is on a Milanese ivory situla and is ca. 974-80. =
It can be adjusted up or down by turning the lectern by way of a central =
screw mechanism.


Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Uses of Print in Early Modern France, =
translated by Lydia G. Cochrane. New Jersey: Princeton University Press: =
1987.

Reading practices and reading furniture of the French in the 18th =
century are described as being for private use, the bookshelf or library =
a symbol of knowledge and power. New types of seats such as the chaise =
longue, "which the reader, usually a woman, could settle at ease and =
abandon himself or herself to the pleasures of the book," are mentioned. =
However, towards the end of this century this type of reading furniture =
was judged as too frivolous and more functional furnishings were =
imposed. Consultation of books was made easier by the use of the =
"book-wheel." Chartier described the book-wheel as "a series of writing =
desks placed along the perimeter of a wooden wheel, turned by hand, held =
books to be consulted. The reader thus could remain seated, consult =
various texts, and check cross-references without useless comings and =
goings and without creating disorderly piles of books." Of course no =
decent text would be without yet another picture of Ramelli's 1588, =
book-wheel.



Clark, John Willis. The care of books: an essay on the development of =
libraries and their fittings, from the earliest times to the end of the =
eighteenth century. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, =
1901.

This lovely old book gives a historical background to the very early =
libraries of the world in the first chapter but Clark devotes the =
remaining 8 chapters to the early Christian libraries and private =
libraries during the 15-18th centuries in France and Italy. The =
scholarly use of books and the furniture that supported this use is the =
main focus of pages 295-311. Clark has included 10 illustrations of the =
early revolving lectern, or wheel-desk as he describes them, which show =
the reader exactly how these devices were used. Most of these pictures =
are from French illuminations that are now held by the British Library.


Gnudi, Martha Teach, translator and author of a biographical study, =
technical annotations and a pictorial glossary by Eugene S. Ferguson. =
Ramelli's Ingenious Machines: The Various and Ingenious Machines of =
Agostino Ramelli (1588). Baltimore [United States of America]: John =
Hopkins University Press, and London: Scolar Press, 1976.

Ramelli devised many machines, many of them for military purposes. It =
was in the original text of this book in 1588 that Ramelli's book-wheel =
was first printed. The text for plate 188 (the bookwheel) is as follows:
        "This is a beautiful and ingenious machine, very useful and convenient =
for anyone who takes pleasure in study, especially those who are =
indisposed and tormented by gout.  For with this machine a man can see =
and turn through a large number of books without moving from one spot.  =
Moreover, it has another fine convenience in that it occupies very =
little space in the place where it is set, as anyone of intelligence can =
clearly see from the drawing. "This wheel is made in the manner shown, =
that is, it is constructed so that when the books are laid on its =
lecterns they never fall or move from the place where they are laid even =
when the wheel is turned and revolved all the way around.  Indeed, they =
will always remain in the same position and will be displayed to the =
reader in the same way as they were laid on their small lecterns, =
without any need to tie or hold them with anything.
This wheel may be made as large or small as desired, provided the master =
craftsman who constructs it observes the proportions of each part of its =
components.  He can do this very easily if he studies carefully all the =
parts of these small wheels of ours and the other devices in this =
machine. These parts are made in sizes proportionate to each other.  To =
give a fuller understanding and comprehension to anyone who wishes to =
make and operate this machine, I have shown here separately and =
uncovered all the devices needed for it, so that anyone may understand =
them better and make use of them for his needs."



Hall, Bert S. "A Revolving Bookcase by Agostino Ramelli." Technology and =
Culture 11(1970): 389-400.

Bert Hall describes Ramelli's book-wheel in detail, especially the =
epicyclic gearing system. Ramelli's engineering history is discussed =
with references to some of his more unusual inventions. Hall traces the =
history of the book-wheel from China to France, 1588.  This article =
provided many valuable reference sources such as Joseph Needham and Wang =
Ling; John Willis Clark; and Grolliere de Servierre. Illustrations of =
Grolliere de Servierre's simplified, slung shelved, book-wheel from 1719 =
and Dante Gnudi's 20th century wooden scale model of Ramelli's book-case =
(book-wheel) which shows clearly the gearing devices used by Ramelli =
himself in his 1588 book-wheel are illustrated in this book on pages =
398-400.


Jardine, Lisa and Anthony Grafton, "Studied for Action: How Gabriel =
Harvey Read His Livy." Past and Present 129 (Nov. 1990): 30-78.

A copy of Ramelli's infamous book-wheel can be found on page 47. This =
article gives a brief description of book culture in the 16th century =
England and how learned men were employed to read and discuss the =
scholarly texts with an audience. Both the audience and reader required =
extreme attentiveness. The reader needed to have various references at =
hand to refer to in his discussions. It is here that the book wheel =
became invaluable. This article describes one particular reader, Gabriel =
Harvey, born in 1550, who became a learned reader and university =
praelector and proctor. He published "high" educational books, his most =
famous, Harvey's Livy, which was "a grand and heavy folio in sixes, =
printed in Basle in 1555," (page 36). The question, "How did Harvey read =
a large number of volumes systematically?" is answered in this article =
by Harvey's probable use of Ramelli's book-wheel.=20


 Keller, Alexander Gustav. A Theatre of Machines. London: Chapman and =
Hall, 1964.

Mechanical inventions from the 16th and 17th centuries are depicted =
throughout this book. Keller has used early printed books written by the =
most important engineers of the time, Ramelli, Besson and Zonca. Most of =
the machines had some connection to architecture. Each picture and =
accompanying text seeks to give the reader an overall picture of each  =
machine's mechanical, historical and aesthetic background. Inventions in =
one field often led to others and how similar ideas appeared in other =
forms. The invention of the wheel and its many uses is well documented =
in these pages of inventions.  A very clear reproduction of Ramelli's =
book-wheel is found on page 94 along with a half page of text about the =
mechanism of the wheel.


Needham, Joseph and Ling Wang. Science and Civilisation in China. V. 4. =
Pt. 2. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1954.

Needham and Wang mention many ancient Chinese texts which reveal the =
sophistication of engineering technology in the east, a thousand years =
before anything like it surfaced in the west, in their 5 volumes of =
Science and Civilisation in China. Explanations for the philosophy and =
religious meanings behind many of the engineering creations, from the =
first half of this millenium, are explained throughout the text. The =
practical uses for the large book-cases (book-wheels) were lost over =
time, to become ritualistic whereby merit could be acquired by the act =
of turning these great structures which often stood 70 feet high and =
took 10 men to turn. Many footnotes are in Chinese characters, with =
English translation in the body of the text. Bibliographies and Index =
are included.


Web sites

Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies
http://citd.scar.utoronto.ca/CRRS/Databases/WWW/Bookmarks.html

This web site for the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies =
lists many=20
Electronic Resources for Research purposes.=20
A list of bookmarks contains a selective list of links to web sites, =
which are useful for researchers working in the Renaissance and the =
Reformation. A very clear reproduction of Ramelli's book-wheel is on =
this page which can be viewed and saved or printed out.


Creating French Culture.  Monarchs and Monasteries: Knowledge and Power =
in Medieval France
http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/bnf/bnf0003.html=20

There are currently 31 sites to visit from this site (they are updated =
regularly) each with its own annotation and hyperlink to a colourful =
reproduction of some of France's rarest and most exquisite treasures. =
Most of the parchments and manuscripts are credited to being held at the =
Sorbonne from where The Library of Congress has scanned and collected =
images which can be accessed from this web site. The pictures on this =
site are a feast for the eyes, despite the fact they are only =
reproductions of these centuries-old masterpieces.
There is a hyperlink to the most beautiful illumination of France's king =
Charles V seated at his book-wheel.=20

Denis Foulechat, Translation of John of Salisbury's Policraticus, Paris, =
14th century, Manuscripts Department, Western Section, Fr. 24287, =
Parchment=20
"In 1372, Charles V (1364-1380) had Foulechat translate Policraticus, an =
important medieval text about political theory which projected a =
theocratic vision of the State and posed the question of monarchical =
legitimacy and tyrannicide. This illustration depicts the wise king =
Charles V seated on a chair from which justice was meted out and =
pointing to the manuscript placed on a book-wheel. He is the very =
picture of the learned and just king blessed by the hand of God."


France and the French, French Arts, Lives, and Books
http://www.joslinhall.com/france2.htm

Grollier de Serviere, Recueil d'ouvragescurieux de mathematique et  de =
ontoon bridges and other sectional works; there are also gates and =
portable ladders for military use; the book ends with some ingenious =
plans for furniture, including a reading "wheel", where the sitter sits =
in front of a ferris-wheel device of shelves, on each of which is an =
open book; a wheeled chair; a portable screen device for accurately =
sketching buildings, and something having to do with lamps which looks =
fairly lethal. An entertaining and fascinating survey of the work and =
collection of one ingenious Frenchman. 7.5"x10", (28) + 101 + (8) pages, =
plus 85 copperplate engravings (numbered 1-88; nos. 39, 48 and 76 were =
never issued); with several woodcut head and tailpieces and decorative =
vignettes in the text; title page printed in red and black. Bound in old =
full calf with appropriate wear, with a new spine label; hinges tight =
and apart from some minor soiling and several minor marginal damp =
stains, a very nice, wide margined and clean copy. [20741] $2500.00


Knops Cor.
http://www.xs4all.nl/~knops/bookmill.htm

This web site was created by Cor Knops, from Knops Boekrestauratie, =
Conservation and Restoration of Books and Paper, from the Netherlands, =
in response to my message I posted out to the L-Sharp and Book Arts -L =
list members, requesting information on the book-wheel. It shows a =
lovely bookmill, which Cor said is "in the Bibliotheca Thysiana in =
Leiden (Netherlands) which dates from the first half of the 17th =
century. It is about 1 metre wide and 1.40 metres high." Cors made a =
scan of this bookmill, which he says, "illustrates an article by R. =
Breugelman's about his library. In the article, Breugleman says amongst =
other [things]: the oldest known picture of a bookmill is in Agostino =
Ramelli's le Diverse et artifiose machine (Paris, 1588)."
Many thanks to Cor Knops for this information.


Tolva, John.
     http://www.mindspring.com/~jntolva/ramelli.html

A small replica of Ramelli's wheel, showing the gearing mechanism can be =
seen on this web site. Some of the factual information is questionable =
though, especially regarding the making of bookwheels in the 16Th =
century. But for a view of a recent bookwheel the site is worth looking =
at. It is unknown when this bookwheel was made, and when the Venice =
Exhibition was held. Tolva says that architect Daniel Libeskind made =
this wheel for that exhibition. He says:

 "Libeskind wrote about the reading machine (and two accompanying =
pieces: the writing machine and the remembering machine) in Countersign =
(1992). I have excerpted a few pertinent passages here.
To try to become the pure medieval craftsman - that's really the object =
of this exercise. So we did it that way. We got up at the crack of dawn, =
four o'clock in the morning. We built this machine in a small place =
without any power tools, just with hand tools; with no electricity, just =
with candlelight. We went to bed early because with candlelight you =
can't work late. And we did it in silence because there is nothing to =
talk about when you work like that.
There are ninety-two wedges and glueless joints, no energy of any =
contemporary kind. The machine seeks to represent the triumph of spirit =
over matter, of candlelight over electrical light or darkness. It's made =
solely from wood as are the books. . . It is a Vitruvian, Albertian =
humanistic wheel of fortune suitable for the diagonally crucified =
humanist of Raphael and Leonardo, for whom I really built it. The square =
intersecting with the circle.
When the wheels and the gears move it's truly beautiful - the =
fascination of a multiplying circle. The experience one has is that the =
books on the top shelf, which are rotating, appear to be falling on top =
of you. This is what I was after. They appear to be falling on your head =
as you pull the wheel or as you read. It's a very uneasy feeling. And as =
you turn the wheel, the book which you've just left behind, which is =
going down, appears to be falling on to the ground. The books fall on =
your head and on the ground but, at the same time, never falling on your =
head and never falling on the ground; always remaining in the same =
position because the axle rotates very accurately, keeping them in an =
ideal position to a hypothetical reader - a reader who isn't there. =
That's the reading experience: one cog of the entire machine."
 =20

Additional references
From: Hans Eckert (Also from a list serve message. Thanks Hans)
h.eckert@stub.uni-frankfurt.de

Katte, Maria von: Herzog August und die Kataloge seiner Bibliothek. In: =
Wolfenbuetteler =20
          Beitraege. 1. 1972. pp. 174-182.
Boghardt, Martin: Das Wolfenbuetteler Buecherrad. In: Museum. April =
1978. pp. 58-60.
Sammler, Fuerst, Gelehrter: Herzog August zu Braunschweig und Lueneburg. =
Wolfenbuettel  =20
          1979. pp. 291/2.
8


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