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Re: [BKARTS] Double-fan binding + test results



Hi Waqar:

I do have some test results:

DOUBLE-FAN GLUING AND NOTCHING
I pulled out some notes from my References database on my computer that I
made a while back when I read the following book: Rebsamen, Werner 1992
"Technically Speaking-Articles on Library Binding" Rochester Institute of
Technology pg147

(1) As far back as 1930 library binders sawed shallow slits and glued in
strings.
(2) Printers used multiple saw blades for children's books and glued in
strings which in cases were stronger than side sewn books.
(3) Mekanotch system does not use strings, just glue in notches. Tests in
books showed an increase in pull strength over double fan adhesive bound and
less openability (maximum was 4 inches).
(a) double fanned  3.42 lbs/inch pull 3.906 inches openability with one lb
weight on spine.
(b) 1/16 inch deep notch every 15 mm 3.59 lbs 3.896 inches
(c) 1/8 inch deep notch every 15 mm 4.00 lbs 3.572 inches
(d) 1/16 inch deep notch every 5 mm 4.36 lbs 3.771 inches
(e) 1/8 inch deep notch every 5 mm 7.23 lbs 3.334 inches

MY OWN TEST RESULTS
Here is part of an earlier post titled "The fairy dust of adhesive lay-flat
bindings-Rainbow RH209 Adhesive" on the Book Arts List dated 2002Aug02 which
you can read in the Book Arts archives.

Page Pull (90 degrees to spine pull)
   1. 5 minute epoxy, 90 degree Double fan single application,  noncoated
paper, Stiff book block, Page pull average= 10.9 lbs/inch*
   2. Hot melt adhesive, Thermal Binding, noncoated paper, Page pull
average=6.3 lbs/inch
   3. RH209 adhesive, 90 degree Double fan single application, nondiluted,
noncoated paper, Page pull average=5.0 lbs/inch*
   4. Polyurethane adhesive, Clamped at spine single application, noncoated
paper, Page pull average=3.2 lbs/inch
   5. PVA padding adhesive, Double fan single application, nondiluted,
noncoated paper, Page pull average=2.54 lbs/inch*
   6. Polyurethane adhesive, Clamped at spine single application, coated
paper, Page pull average=2.09 lbs/inch
   7. Hot melt adhesive, Typical perfect bound, noncoated paper, Page pull
average=1.9 lbs/inch

Corner Pull (15 degrees to spine pull)
   1. RH209 adhesive, Double fan single application, nondiluted,  noncoated
paper, Corner pull average=1.8 lbs*
   2. 5 minute epoxy, Double fan single application,  noncoated paper,
Corner pull average=1.8 lbs*
   3. Hot melt adhesive, Thermal Binding, noncoated paper, Corner pull
average=1.3 lbs
   4. Polyurethane adhesive, Clamped at spine single application, noncoated
paper, Corner pull average=1.3 lbs
   5. Folded stapled sheets, noncoated paper, Corner pull average=1.3 lbs
   6. Vinyl repair cold adhesive, Clamped at spine single application,
nondiluted,
noncoated paper, Page pull average=0.90 lbs
   7. Sewn signatures, noncoated paper, Corner pull average=0.75 lbs
   8. Hot melt adhesive, Typical perfect bound, noncoated paper, Corner pull
average=0.67 lbs
   9. PVA padding adhesive, Double fan single application, nondiluted,
noncoated
paper, Corner pull average=0.15 lbs*

COMPARISON
Because my tests and Mekanotch tests were not done exactly the same, the
exact test conditions were not stated, and the adhesive I am sure was
different, the test results are not totally conclusive. But let's examine
some important details. The Mekanotch tests did show a dramatic increase in
strength with heavy notching:

(a) no notching and double fanned 3.42 lbs/inch pull
(d) 1/16 inch deep notch every 5 mm 4.36 lbs
(e) 1/8 inch deep notch every 5 mm 7.23 lbs

Now I never said that notching can not increase the strength over a book
block that is double-fan glued in exactly the same way. Duncan stated that
some of the notching systems will go as deep as 1/4 to 3/8 of an inch so
this would result in over 2x the strength when notching compared to not
notching. I think that a book with 3/8 inch deep notches does not lay very
flat. It does not feel like a sewn book. The change in openability from 4
inches down to 3.334 inches with the 1/8 inch notches seems little but this
type of book is not really lay-flat anymore. But there is no mention of what
angle of fanning was used or any change in strength when the fanning angle
was changed or when other conditions were changed.

Now my own tests using double-fan gluing are quite different. I double-fan
glued with the text block bent 90 degrees which I believe is usual. In my
Page Pull test I pulled pages at 5.0 lbs/inch and I repeated this figure
several times on different books. The Mekanotch tests pulled pages at only
3.42 lbs/inch. A big difference. So with no notching I am achieving the
strength of the Mekanotch using closely spaced 3/32 inch notches. I made
some other test books which were bound with greater glue penetration and
pulled much higher than 5.0 lbs/inch but the book still opened somewhat
flat. My corner pull tests showed that my double-fan glued book block was
already many times stronger than a sewn book in this respect. So how much
better than a sewn book should one aim for?

CONCLUSIONS
I used the term "Fairy Dust" in many of my posts to Book Arts. It is not
that tricky to do double-fan gluing but some important aspects must be done
right or else the book will fall apart. I read many articles which indicated
that many books bound with double-fan gluing failed because of a lack of
attention to detail. Is notching required to make the books strong enough?
Who knows? What is strong enough? Maybe notching is done to compensate for
certain poorly made books that made a bad name for double-fan binding? Now
double-fan books need to be twice as strong as needed to convince everyone
they are good. I don't know. Maybe a change to the spine liner would do more
for book durability than using notching? I would like to see a proper
comparison test done between a sewn binding and a truly optimized double-fan
bound book not using notching.

Ben Wiens...applied energy scientist
Ben Wiens Energy Science Inc.
8-1200 Brunette Ave. Coquitlam BC V3K1G3 Canada
E-mail: ben@benwiens.com
Energy Website: http://www.benwiens.com
Read my popular web-booklet "The Future of Fuel Cells"

-----Original Message-----
Speaking of tests, does anybody have results from any set of systematic
tests comparing different methods/glues/papers/any other factor for (hand)
binding? Ben, you mentioned you did some experimentation, do you have a
writeup anywhere you wouldn't mind sharing with us?

Regards,

Waqar

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