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Re: [BKARTS] PVA: what Elmer's is that?



I pretty sure Elmer's IS considered a "pva"  (Polyvinyl acetate) proprietary or not.  What were the ph results?  How dry was the adhesive?  It takes quite awhile for constituents to volatilize out of the dry adhesive.


> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "J. J. Foncannon" <bolu.bolu@xxxxxxxxxxx>
> To: BOOK_ARTS-L@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
> Subject: Re: [BKARTS] PVA: what Elmer's is that?
> Date:         Fri, 3 Feb 2006 13:38:14 -0500
> 
> 
> I did the Ph tests not on PVA, but on Elmer's white glue.  The glue 
> was dry when I applied the test.  The composition of
> this glue is proprietary, and hence unknown.
> Jet
> 
> Bruce Levy wrote:
> >
> > To my knowledge, PVA acidity is quite different when it is wet 
> > and when it's dry.  One needs to be careful about throwing data 
> > around without pointing out the criteria for collecting such 
> > data.  If "conservation" PVA is significantly less acidic (maybe 
> > a buffer was added like calcium carbonate- I have no idea) how 
> > does that effect it's adhesive properties eg.  does it hold as 
> > long, better, worse?  What happens when it "crosslinks", does it 
> > just crumble into white powder?   Has anyone done a dry test from 
> > the various PVA's-especially with the improved PVA's produced in 
> > the last 15-20 years? Oh yes, also, the archival tests.  What 
> > about the possibility that 100 degrees for so much time might not 
> > really be a fair comparison TO REAL LIFE ANF TIME?  Not to 
> > mention that using an eraser on a piece of paper is a 
> > NON_REVERSABLE interventive process.
> >
> > Bruce
> > > ----- Original Message -----
> > > From: "J. J. Foncannon" <bolu.bolu@xxxxxxxxxxx>
> > > To: BOOK_ARTS-L@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
> > > Subject: Re: [BKARTS] PVA;: what Elmer's is that?
> > > Date:         Fri, 3 Feb 2006 11:43:12 -0500
> > >
> > >
> > > I have Ph tested the Elmer's white glue.  It is quite acid.  While
> > > I don't know the composition of the glue, it can't be
> > > PVA alone.  (I find this an excellent adhesive when used for things
> > > like leather to leather.  I wouldn't use it on paper.)
> > > Jet
> > >
> > > Alan Shalette wrote:
> > > >
> > > > PVA is an extraordinarily versatile adhesive used
> > > > in a multitude of applications in a host of industries -
> > > > bookbinding, printing, packaging, woodworking,
> > > > electronics, and other types of manufacturing, as
> > > > well as being packaged for retail customer use
> > > > (e.g., Elmer's).
> > > >
> > > > As reported below, its development arose out of
> > > > adhesive shortages during WW II.
> > > >
> > > > Also noted is that formulations of PVA-based
> > > > adhesives include different types application-specific
> > > > additives suited to the specific needs of those
> > > > applications.
> > > >
> > > > Bookbinding is one such application, having particular
> > > > requirements and requiring special types of additives
> > > > and formulations.
> > > >
> > > > For hand bookbinding, we want an adhesive that :
> > > > flows smoothly and can be applied in thin layers, can
> > > > be thinned with water to adjust tack time, will bond
> > > > pyroxlin-coated bookcloths (used to repel water, dirt,
> > > > etc.), will dry within a reasonable time, is strong, won't
> > > > age, is not affected by environmental factors (e.g.,
> > > > won't absorb atmospheric humidity or pollutants), is
> > > > flexible and transparent when dry, etc. We'd also like
> > > > it to be reversible, but...
> > > >
> > > > Contrast these properties with woodworking formulations
> > > > that are stronger than the wood they bond, include dyes to
> > > > match wood colors, dry hard so they can be worked
> > > > like wood, etc.
> > > >
> > > > Also contrast hand binding requirements with those
> > > > specific to machine binding (see Tony Clark's
> > > > "Bookbinding with Adhesives," McGraw-Hill (1988).
> > > >
> > > > Consequently, while there are many PVA-adhesives
> > > > available, we use those that are specially formulated
> > > > for bookbinding (e.g., check Talas's catalog online).
> > > > In a pinch, something like Elmer's can be a satisfactory
> > > > substitute, but woodworking adhesives usually can't.
> > > >
> > > > The same can be said for methyl-cellulose based
> > > > adhesives (an important ingredient in Gummy Bears,
> > > > laxatives, and pharmaceuticals).
> > > >
> > > > Alan Shalette
> > > >
> > > > -----------------------------
> > > > Kantrowitz, Morris S.
> > > > Miscellaneous Bookbinding Adhesives
> > > > GPO-PIA Joint Research Bulletin,
> > > > Bindery Series No. 4 (1953)
> > > > Government Printing Office - Printing Industries Association
> > > >
> > > > Because of wartime restrictions placed on the quantities of animal glue
> > > > available for use in the pro?duction of adhesives in the 
> > Government Printing
> > > > Office, a study was made of various synthetic resins early in 
> > 1943 for the
> > > > purpose of ascertaining whether or not some of these might prove
> > > > satisfactory as
> > > > substitutes for the glue compositions employed by the bindery.
> > > >
> > > > This investigation led to the development of several resinous
> > > > adhesive formulas
> > > > employing as the principal constituent a water emulsion of 
> > polyvinyl acetate
> > > > resin. This compound, manufactured commercially as a heavy milky
> > > > white emulsion
> > > > similar in consistency to liquid glue, exhibits excellent 
> > adhesive qualities,
> > > > drying out into a hard but brittle film. In view of its brittle
> > > > nature when dry,
> > > > it proved unsuitable in its manufac?tured form as a substitute
> > > > for the flexible
> > > > glue com?pounds employed for bookbinding operations such as gluing-off,
> > > > lining-up, perfect binding, and padding.
> > > >
> > > > Experiments revealed that the addition of a soften?ing agent or
> > > > plasticizer to
> > > > the polyvinyl acetate emul?sion, in an amount equivalent to 8 
> > percent of the
> > > > total weight of emulsion, produced dry resinous films
> > > > per?manently flexible and
> > > > ideally suited for padding and notebook work. It was observed in
> > > > the course of
> > > > this research that the addition of varying amounts of a dibutyl phthalate
> > > > plasticizer to polyvinyl acetate emul?sion increased the
> > > > viscosity or thickened
> > > > the padding compound in proportion to the quantity added. The increase in
> > > > viscosity was so noticeable when 10 percent of the 
> > plasticizer was added that
> > > > bookbinders who ap?plied the adhesive to the pads complained that
> > > > the com?pound
> > > > was too thick for easy application. The thick compound did not
> > > > brush on readily
> > > > and more time was consumed in working the thick mixture.
> > > > Preliminary tests made
> > > > with a padding compound of low viscosity demonstrated that a 
> > thin compound of
> > > > uniform vis?cosity could be more readily applied than a viscous one.
> > > >
> > > > Small amounts of water were accordingly added to the 
> > plasticized polyvinyl
> > > > acetate emulsion in order to thin out the mixture sufficiently for easy
> > > > application by the bookbinder. A viscosity range lying 
> > between 5 and 7 poises
> > > > was found to be best for padding work.
> > > >
> > > > A number of experiments were conducted using various chemical 
> > plasticizers in
> > > > arriving at the present formulas used in this Office but only 
> > a few of these
> > > > were found suitable in properties or of reasonable cost 
> > foruse as softening
> > > > agents. Those which best met the requirements were dibutyl
> > > > phthalate, glyceryl
> > > > triacetate, sold under the trade name "Triacetin," and 2-methyl
> > > > 2'4 pentanediol,
> > > > sold under the trade name "Hexylene Glycol." The incorporation of
> > > > small amounts
> > > > of any of these chemicals into polyvinyl acetate emulsion
> > > > pro?duces a very good
> > > > bookbinding adhesive which remains flexible upon drying of 
> > the adhesive film.
> > > >
> > > > Some advan?tages of polyvinyl acetate emulsion over other
> > > > resinous adhesives are
> > > > that it is readily diluted with water as required by the
> > > > bookbinder, it is easy
> > > > to apply, and safe to use since it contains no flammable 
> > solvents. It is also
> > > > easily washed out of brushes and containers with water while
> > > > still moist. When
> > > > this plastic sets, it becomes water resistant.
> > > >
> > > > The ordinary bindery glues and pastes are not satisfactory for adhering
> > > > pyroxylin treated fabrics in some bindery operations and in 
> > many instances
> > > > binders or cases glued with these adhesives pull loose or fail to
> > > > remain glued
> > > > after they have dried. The white resinous polyvinyl acetate 
> > adhesive has been
> > > > found excellent for the pyroxylin treated fabrics and has 
> > been used in this
> > > > Office with complete success. This adhesive can be used for many
> > > > hand operations
> > > > in?cluding gluing-off, lining-up, and the application of rides or
> > > > labels. One of
> > > > the uses found for this adhesive was that of affixing oil 
> > cloth linings to
> > > > pyroxylin coated binders. The adhesive for this operation was 
> > applied by a
> > > > machine to the back of an oil cloth strip, which was then applied
> > > > to the inside
> > > > of the binder. This ad?hesive produced a strong permanent 
> > bond between the
> > > > tumed-in edges of the pyroxylin coated film and the oil cloth. Previous
> > > > operations of this nature using hide glue as the adhesive were
> > > > not satisfactory
> > > > unless the turned-in edges of the coated fabric were first washed
> > > > with alcohol,
> > > > adding another operational cost to the production.
> > > >
> > > > There is no necessity for the use of preservatives with this
> > > > adhesive since it
> > > > does not deteriorate upon aging nor is it subject to molds or 
> > fungus growths,
> > > > even though it may be exposed to the air for many months. 
> > How?ever, freezing
> > > > destroys the emulsion, and therefore pre?caution must be taken to
> > > > avoid exposing
> > > > it to freezing temperatures before using.
> > > >
> > > > This formula produces an adhesive which will firmly fasten 
> > paper, leather, or
> > > > such fabrics as pyroxylin treated, starch filled, rubberized, 
> > or plain muslin
> > > > cloths to cellulose acetate surfaces. It has been used in 
> > this Office in the
> > > > production of transparent cellulose ace?tate envelopes for 
> > the protection of
> > > > maps and photo?graphs upon exhibition. The cloth binding used 
> > on this type of
> > > > work is glued-off by hand, permitted to dry for about two 
> > minutes, and then
> > > > applied to the cellulose acetate surfaces.  In preparing this
> > > > adhesive add the
> > > > water to the polyvinyl acetate emulsion and then follow with the dibutyl
> > > > phthalate and gamma valerolactone with constant stirring. Either
> > > > hexylene glycol
> > > > or tri-acetin may be substituted for dibutyl phthalate as the 
> > plasticizer.
> > > >
> > > > ----------------------------------------------
> > > >
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> > > --
> > >
> > > __________________________________________________
> > > **********************************************************
> > > J. J. Foncannon
> > > Philadelphia, PA  19139
> > >
> > >       The Belgian surrealist painter Renee Magritte entered a cheese
> > > store in Brussels to purchase a wheel of Swiss cheese.
> > > The owner pulled a wheel from the front window, but Magritte said
> > > he preferred the one on the back counter.
> > >       ?But they are identical,? the owner protested.
> > >       ?No,? Magritte insisted.  ?This one?s been stared at.?
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> --
> 
> __________________________________________________
> **********************************************************
> J. J. Foncannon
> Philadelphia, PA  19139
> 
> 	The Belgian surrealist painter Renee Magritte entered a cheese 
> store in Brussels to purchase a wheel of Swiss cheese.
> The owner pulled a wheel from the front window, but Magritte said 
> he preferred the one on the back counter.
> 	?But they are identical,? the owner protested.
> 	?No,? Magritte insisted.  ?This one?s been stared at.?
> **********************************************************
> 
>               ***********************************************
> Now Online - The Bonefolder, Vol. 2, No. 1 at 
> <http://www.philobiblon.com/bonefolder>
> 
>               For all your subscription questions, go to the
>                        Book_Arts-L FAQ and Archive.
> 
>            See <http://www.philobiblon.com> for full information
>               ***********************************************

>

             ***********************************************
Now Online - The Bonefolder, Vol. 2, No. 1 at <http://www.philobiblon.com/bonefolder>
                                    
             For all your subscription questions, go to the
                      Book_Arts-L FAQ and Archive.
                                    
          See <http://www.philobiblon.com> for full information
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